The plate filter press is an industrial machine used in various industries to separate dense fluids and sludge by distinguishing solids and liquids.
The filter press plate is used in various industries, including:
Metallurgical and mining sector.
Battery recycling sector.
All filter press models are made of various components that differ in the level of automation and various other details. However, the basic structure of a filter press remains the same. Some common components in every plate filter press include –
A frame with a fixed head, a jack, and a movable head.
Various filter plates.
A hydraulic cylinder helps in shifting the filter plates.
The hydraulic power unit activates the hydraulic cylinder.
The pump is used to feed the thick fluid or the sludge into the filter press.
Depending on the type of process and level of automation desired, optional components can be added to this basic structure, such as:
An electrical panel is used to manage and control the filter press cycles.
For housing the pneumatic process valves, a framework is used.
Secured safety guards.
Photoelectric barriers or mobile safety guards are used to make any machine intervention by the operators.
Procedure for opening the filter press.
Opening system for filter plates.
Shaking system for filter plates.
Collection Of Sludge In The Plate Filter Press
The sludge accumulation occurs via a feed pump for the filter press. Moreover, to better understand which type of feed pump to choose, one must learn how the plate filter press works.
The feed pump plays a vital role in the plate and frame filtration and sludge collection process, even more, important than a filter press itself. Even if some automatic function is defective or a gasket breaks, it is still possible to complete the filtration, perhaps with a lot of time consumption. To keep it simple, there is no way to proceed with filtration if the pump is not working.
In dewatering and sludge collection, the application of plate filter press feed pumps can be performed by two elements in sequence or a single variable feed element.
In the first case, the collection and transit of sludge are handled by a centrifugal pump in the filing phase and a volumetric one for the final filtration. In the second case, the main advantage lies in the possible reduction in management costs because of having to manage a single element.
Filtration Process Of A Plate Filter Press
Let us understand how does a plate filter press work?
The process begins with the plate and frame filter press closure through an oleo dynamic system, consisting of one or more thrust cylinders that align the plates and keep them close to each other by exerting extreme pressure. This also ensures tightness and counter thrust against the pressure exerted by the feed pump.
The sludge collected is pumped into the chambers that form between the plates. The liquid in which it is suspended is pushed via a series of cloths, covering them and act.
The plates are configured to allow the entrance of sludge and exit of filtered liquid through a series of holes that are located in the fixed head.
After checking the clean water flow and filtration pressure, the system signals that dehydration has been attained. At this point, the slurry feed pump is stopped, the pressure is released, and the plate filter press plates are separated. In this manner, the filter press allows the dehydrated sludge to be discharged as a filtration cake.
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The filter press machine is the equipment used for the separation method to separate solid and liquid. Filter press machine working consumes low energy, low to no human resources required, and high separation effectiveness of liquid filtering out, making it extensively used dewatering technology. Filter press is a widely used dewatering technology in papermaking, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage industries, mining operations, chemical industries, mills, marble, and stone cutting.
The first and foremost type of filter press that is the Automatic filter press, differs widely from an old filter press machine. The basic structure, working principles, and process technology are similar to conventional press machines. In 1853 the British patent used the first form of filter press for procuring seed oil through various pressure cells.
Filter cloth in a Filter press is used to segregate liquid and solids from the slurry once it is pushed between the empty spaces of filter plates. At first, some tiny slurry particles go through the filter cloth material. The process continues until a film of dehydrated solids collects on the surface of the cloth. The collected solids then begin to filter other slurry material encapsulating all the solids and allowing only clean liquid (i.e., the filtrate) to go through the filter cloth.